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ABCDE program

A: Awareness and Aspirin (if indicated) -Increased awareness of patients of cardiovascular signs and symptoms 


B: Blood pressure

Goal blood pressure <140/90 mmHg 


C: Cholesterol and Cigarettes

High-intensity statin therapy for preexisting CVD or hyperlipidemia - Smoking cessation counseling, therapy  


D: Diet and Diabetes

Diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grain and low in saturated fat with 600 IU vitamin D daily and adequate calcium (1200 mg/d), avoidance of excessive alcohol 


E: Exercise

150 min/wk of moderate-intensity physical activity or 75 min/wk of vigorous exercise 

Adapted from Bhatha et al, Circulation. 2016;133:537-541

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